Biojournal of Science and Technology
Volume 5, ISSN:2410-9754, Article ID: m170002

Research Article

Grain quality evaluation & comparative analysis of physicochemical properties of traditional cultivars and high yielding (HYV) Aman rice varieties in Bangladesh.

Shakir Hosen1, Saima Jahan2, Md Mahfuzur Rahman2, Muhammad Ali Siddiquee1, Habibul Bari Shozib1*

Date of Acceptance: 2016/12/12
Published in Online: 2017/07/11

1Grain Quality and Nutrition Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur. 2Department of Applied Statistic, East West University. Aftab Nagor, Dhaka.
Address Correspond to:
Habibul Bari Shozib, PhD Senior Scientific Officer (SSO) Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Gazipur-1701, Dhaka, Bangladesh E-mail: [email protected]

Academic editor: Editor-in-Chief

To Cite This Article:
Shakir Hosen, Saima Jahan, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Muhammad Ali Siddiquee, Habibul Bari Shozib*. Grain quality evaluation & comparative analysis of physicochemical properties of traditional cultivars and high yielding (HYV) Aman rice varieties in Bangladesh. Biojournal of Science and Technology.Vol:5,2017

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Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of rice grains of local traditional and high yielding Aman variety. Characteristics studied include physical parameters such as grain classification, appearance, milling outturn, length, breadth, L/B ratio), Chemical parameters such as alkali spreading value (ASV), apparent amylose content (AAC), protein content and cooking characteristics such as cooking time, volume expansion, elongation ratio. A total of 26 rice aman cultivars including 13 (thirteen) local cultivars and 13 (thirteen) high yielding variety were studied for physicochemical properties. Our data reveals that the highest milling outturn 72.5% was found in the BRRI dhan57 and lowest in local variety Sakor (67.4%). The highest milled rice length (6.5mm) was found in BRRI dhan42 and the highest L/B ratio (3.7) was found in BRRI dhan57 and the lowest was in Sakor (1.9). AAC of these cultivars range from 21% (BRRI dhan 53) to 28.1 (Subulkua). All the variety contain more than 7.0% protein content. The highest protein content found in traditional variety Betu (9.1%) and the lowest in HYV BRRI dhan51 and BRRI dhan 54(7%). Maximum cooking time required for 22.5 min for BRRI dhan33 and lowest in Jabsiri (12.5 min). Elongation ratio (ER) of grain of local and modern aman rice varieties varied between 1.2 to 1.6. The highest elongation ratio was BRRI dhan51(1.6). Imbibition rato (IR) of grain of local and modern Aman rice varieties varied between BRRI dhan57(2.4) to Subulkua(4.6). The highest elongation ratio was BRRI dhan 51(1.6). Information generated from characterizing these local traditional cultivars will allow breeders to select superior quality rice varieties for parental selection of aman rice breeding program in Bangladesh.

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Content Section

INTRODUCTION

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops, serving the staple food for one third of the world’s population. In Bangladesh around 74% of the total cropped area covered by rice production which produce around 34000 thousands metric ton per year (BBS 2011). In respect of area and production of rice , Bangladesh ranks fourth following China, India and Indonesia (FAO,2008). The population of Bangladesh is still growing by two million every year and may increase by another 30 million over the next 20 years but rice production area is decreasing day by day due to high population pressure. This is a big challenge for Bangladesh. Considering the vast potential of aman rice in Bangladesh, it is imperative that rice scientists to develop suitable aman rice varieties with high nutrient content. Bangladesh is a riverine country with plentiful water resources with hot and humid monsoon climate. Monsoon rain occurs normally between the months of June to September. The condition of Bangladesh is blissful for growing aman paddy. All types of land excepting low lands are brought under aman cultivation where planting of seedlings is possible. It is eco friendly cultivation as it is purely a tropical monsoon rain dependent crop and helps to reduce ground water depletion as it’s not depended on irrigation only or less irrigation. Considering above challenges and advantages, rice scientists should focus on aman season and select right variety which will fill up the upcoming demand. Quality of rice is determined by the factors such as grain appearance, nutritional value, cooking and eating quality (Juliano,1990) Consumers base their concept of quality on grain appearance, grain size and shape, behavior upon cooking and the taste, tenderness, and flavor of cooked rice. The physical characteristics include grain length, L/B ratio, chalkiness milling percentage. AAC, Alkali spreading value and protein content are chemical characteristics and cooking characteristics include cooking time,volume expansion and Elongation ratio. Grain quality is a very wide area encompassing diverse characters that are directly or indirectly related to exibit one quality type (Siddiqui, 2007 Juliano, 1993). The endosperm possess certain physical and chemical characteristics basically due to AAC (Webb,1985, Juliano,1990; Unnevehr et.al.,1992), protein content (Hsieh and Brunner,1976), gel consistency (Cagampang et.al.,1972), gelatinization temperature (Juliano,1972) and physical properties of cooked rice grain are considered as an important factors (Khatoon and Prakash 2007). Since Bangladesh is sufficient in rice production at present time, it is high time to focus on good rice grain quality related research activities specially for aman rice breeding programmers in  Bangladesh.

METHODS & MATERIALS

A total of 26 aman rice varieties including local cultivars such as Sakor, Rotisail, Bashiraj, Tilkapur, Jabsiri, Bashi, Sunamukhi, Sunasail, Bada dhan, Kaisa phul, Betu, Jingh sail, Subulkua and BRRI HYVs such as BR5, BR11, BRRI dhan30, BRRI dhan33, BRRI dhan41, BRRI dhan42, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan53, BRRI dhan54 and BRRI dhan57 were studied for a comparative study on physicochemical and cooking properties. Rice grain were collected from Gene bank of BRRI (GRSD) and processed milling at un-parboiled condition for physicochemical and cooking properties analysis. Milling outturn were determined by dehulling 200g rough rice in Satake Rice mill, followed by 45 second polishing in a satake rice grain Testing Mill TM-05. All physical parameters were measured following IRRI evaluation standard (SES, 2015). Slide Calipers was used for the measurement of grain length and breadth. Milled rice was first classified into three classes based on length, long (>6.0 mm in length), medium (5-6 mm in length) and short (<5.0 mm in length). They were again classified into three classes according to the length/breadth (L/B) ratio; slender (ratio more than 3.0); Bold (ratio 2.0-3.0) bold, Round (ratio <2.0) to determine size and shape. AAC was determined by the procedure of Juliano (1971) and alkali spreading value was determined according to the procedure of Little et.al.,1958. Protein contents were calculated from nitrogen and was determined by Micro Kjeldahl method. Volumes of cooked and milled rice were measured by water displacement method. Five gram of milled rice was placed in a graduated cylinder containing 50 mL of water and the change in volume was noted. For cooked rice volume 5 g of milled rice was cooked and the cooked rice was placed in the same cylinder and the change in volume was measured. Cooking time was measured when 90% of cooked rice totally gelatinized. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) was applied on AAC %, Protein content (%) and ASV parameter for statistical analysis using SPSS, version 20.0.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Physical properties: Rice grain quality largely depends on the physicochemical properties which are greatly influenced by the genotype.15 (Kishine et al.,2008). Milling outturn (MOT%) is one of the key parameters of the rice grain quality as it increases the shell life and provides the consumer with more whiteness that they desire. In physical properties analysis twenty six (26) tested rice varieties contained satisfactory milling outturn range from 67.4% to 72.5% (table1). Milling outturn is the total quantity of head rice and broken rice recovered from unit quantity of rough rice .In general milling outturn more than 50% is desirable as the more the value the less the rough rice is discarded as bran. Among the tested varieties highest milling outturn  72.5% was found in BRRI dhan 57 and lowest milling outturn 67,4% found in local variety Sakor. In case of local rice and modern varieties lowest milling outturn were found in Sakor (67.4%), BRRI dhan 40 (70%) and highest milling outturn were found in Tilkapur (72%) and BRRI dhan57 (72.5%) respectively. Twenty rice varieties showed the milling outturn more than 70%.

Chalkiness: Kernels of the most of the varieties were translucent and looked very good in appearance. The variety Bashi,Suna sail,Bada dhan, Kaisa phul contain white center. Betu was mixed with translucent and opaque. Bashiraj was mixed with translucent and white belly.

Length and breadth and L/B ratio: Although the appearance does not reflect the nutritional quality of rice ,consumers have preference for size and shape of rice based on cooked rice texture. Therefore marketer and the miller give importance to the appearances as it is important to the consumer. In this study ,most of the rice varieties are found to have medium bold type among the tested varieties. The highest length 6.5 mm was found in BRRI dhan42 and lowest (3.6mm) found in BR5. Highest and lowest length of local variety were 6.2 mm and 4.3 mm for Roti sail and Sakor respectively (Table 1).

Table 1: Physical characteristics of HYV and local cultivars

Variety Length of Rice (mm) MOT% L/B
 

 

 

 

 

Traditional Rice

Varieties

 

Sakor 4.3j 67.4e 1.9f
Jabsiri 4.8ij 68.5de 2.7bcdef
Bashiraj 5.3fghi 70.6abc 2.4bcdef
Tilkapur 5.3fghi 72.0ab 2.7bcdef
Bada dhan 5.3fghi 69.6cd 2.4bcdef
Bashi 5.4efghi 70.2bcd 2.5bcdef
Sunasail 5.4efghi 71.1abc 2.2cdef
Kaisa phul 5.4efghi 69.0cde 2.3bcdef
Sunamukhi 5.6cdefgh 71.0abc 2.5bcdef
Betu 5.6cdefgh 69.4cd 2.2cdef
Subulkua 5.6cdefgh 71.0abc 2.2cdef
Jingh Sail 6.1abcde 69.6cd 2.5bcdef
Roti Sail 6.2abcd 70.3bcd 2.8bcde
 

 

 

 

 

BRRI HYVs

BR5 3.6k 71.0abc 2.1def
BR11 5.0ghij 72.0ab 2.3bcdef
BRRI dhan30 5.7bcdefg 72.0ab 3.0abc
BRRI dhan33 4.9hij 71.0abc 2.0ef
BRRI dhan40 5.1ghi 72.0ab 2.3bcdef
BRRI dhan41 6.0abcde 70.0bcd 3.0abc
BRRI dhan42 6.5a 71.0abc 3.1ab
BRRI dhan46 5.5defghi 72.0ab 2.0ef
BRRI dhan49 5.5defghi 71.0abc 2.8bcdef
BRRI dhan51 5.4efghi 71.0abc 2.5bcdef
BRRI dhan53 6.2abcd 70.4abcd 2.9bcd
BRRI dhan54 6.4ab 71.0abc 2.8bcde
BRRI dhan57 6.3abc 72.5a 3.7a
Mean 5.48 70.64 2.53
Std. Error 0.08 0.17 0.06
Any two means having common letter (s) are not statistically different at a P< 0.05, as measured by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).


Chemical properties:

Apparent Amylose Content (AAC): The highest AAC (28.1%)  was estimated in Bashiraj and lowest (21%) was estimated in BRRI dhan53 (Table ) Amylose content of rice determines the hardness and stickiness of cooked rice. AAC content higher than 25% gives non sticky soft or hard cooked rice. Among the varieties Sakor,Roti sail ,Bashi ,Sunamukhi, Sunasail, Bada dhan, Kaisa phul, Betu, Jingh sail Subulkua, BR5, BR11, BRRI dhan 30, BRRI dhan40, BRRI dhan42, BRRI dhan54 had higher AAC. BRRI dhan53 had the lowest AAC of 21%. Rice having 20-25% AAC gives soft and relatively sticky cooked rice. Intermediate level of AAC content (20%-<25%) were found in Tilkapur (24.6%), Jabsiri (23.3%), BRRI dhan41(24.6%), BRRI dhan46 (24.8%) BRRI dhan49 (24.7%) BRRI dhan51(25%) and  BRRI dhan57(25%) (Table 2).

Table 2: Chemical properties of HYV and local cultivars

Variety ACC% PC% ASV
 

 

 

Traditional Rice Varieties

 

Tilkapur 24.6h 8.5abcde 5.3cdef
Sakor 25.8efgh 7.9def 6.4a
Bashi 25.8efgh 8.8abc 4.9fgh
Kaisa phul 26.3cdef 8.7abcd 5.7bcd
Jabsiri 23.3i 8.9ab 4.5ghi
Jingh Sail 26.7cde 8.2bcde 4.0ij
Roti Sail 26defg 8.5abcde 5.5bcdef
Betu 26.9abcde 9.1a 6.0ab
Bada dhan 27.2abc 8.3abcde 5.1def
Sunasail 27.4abc 7.9def 4.9fgh
Sunamukhi 27.5abc 8.3abcde 5.8bc
Subulkua 28.0ab 9.0ab 5.6bcde
Bashiraj 28.1a 7.8efg 6.0ab
BRRI HYVs BR5 26.5cde 9.0ab 4.5ghi
BR11 26.0defg 8.0cdef 5.5bcdef
BRRI dhan53 21.0j 7.2fg 4.1ij
BRRI dhan41 24.6h 7.7efg 3.3k
BRRI dhan49 24.7gh 8.7abcd 5.3cdef
BRRI dhan46 24.8gh 8.0cdef 5.9abc
BRRI dhan33 25.0fgh 8.4abcde 4.0ij
BRRI dhan51 25.0fgh 7.0g 4.4hi
BRRI dhan57 25.0fgh 8.0cdef 3.8jk
BRRI dhan40 25.7efgh 7.7efg 5.9abc
BRRI dhan42 26.0defg 8.3abcde 5.0efg
BRRI dhan54 26.0defg 7.0g 5.3cdef
BRRI dhan30 26.8bcde 8.8abc 4.3ij
Mean± Std. Error 25.79±0.18 8.22±0.07 5.04±0.08
Any two means having common letter (s) are not statistically different at a P< 0.05, as measured by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

 Alkaline spreading value (ASV), gelatinization temperature (GT) and protein content: ASV had inverse relationship with gelatinization temperature. ASV of the tested varieties ranges from 3.3 to 6.4. The highest ASV(6.4) and lowest ASV(3.3) was found in local variety Sakor and BRRI dhan41 respectively (Table 2). Majority of the varieties have intermediate GT and ASV. Protein content of rice is important from nutritional point of view. Several factors such as variety, environmental and cultural practices may influence the protein content of the grain. Protein content of the tested varieties range from 7.2% to 10.3%. Highest protein content was found in local traditional variety Betu (9.1%) and lowest protein content were found in BRRI dhan51 and BRRI dhan54 (7.0%) (Table 2).

Cooking properties: Cooking time of the traditional variety range from 12.5 to 20 minute, while high yielding varieties range from 14 to 22.5 minute. Highest cooking time for both group was BRRI dhan33 (22.5min) and lowest was Jabsiri (12.5min).The volume expansion ratio ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 mm.Variety BRRI dhan 33 showed 4.3 mm and Betu and BRRI dhan57 with 2.4 mm. The positive correlation of amylose content with water uptake, volume expansion ratio and alkali spreading value indicates that high amylose rice variety will absorb more water at low gelatinization temperature and will produce a greater volume of cooked materials. Kernel elongation ratio was found to be not related with either Amylose content or alkali spreading value. Kernel elongation ratio in traditional cultivars from 1.2 to 1.3 mm and high yielding varieties from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. Highest  elongation ratio (ER) was observed in variety BR5 and BRRI dhan51 (Table 3).

Table 3: Cooking properties of HYV and local cultivars

Variety CT (Mins) IR ER
Jingh Sail 19bcd 3.7cde 1.3ab
Traditional Rice  Varieties Sunamukhi 15.5i 3.4efg 1.3ab
Sakor 16.0hi 4.0bcd 1.3ab
Bashi 16.5ghi 3.7cde 1.3ab
Jabsiri 12.5k 4.2b 1.2b
Sunasail 18.5cde 3.2fg 1.3ab
Tilkapur 17.0fgh 3.4efg 1.2b
Bada dhan 18.5cde 3.2fg 1.2b
Bashiraj 17.5efg 3.7cde 1.3ab
Betu 19.5bc 2.4i 1.2b
Kaisa phul 20.0b 3.0gh 1.3ab
Subulkua 20.0b 4.6a 1.2b
Roti Sail 18.0def 3.2fg 1.2b
BR5 14.0j 3.4efg 1.6a
BR11 17.0fgh 3.6def 1.3ab
BRRI dhan41 17.5efg 4.0bcd 1.3ab
BRRI HYVs BRRI dhan46 16.5ghi 3.3efg 1.3ab
BRRI dhan57 17.0fgh 2.4i 1.3ab
BRRI dhan51 18.0def 3.3efg 1.6a
BRRI dhan54 18.0def 3.1g 1.2b
BRRI dhan53 17.5efg 2.7hi 1.2b
BRRI dhan42 18.5cde 4.3ab 1.3ab
BRRI dhan30 19.0bcd 4.1bc 1.3ab
BRRI dhan40 19.0bcd 4.0bcd 1.3ab
BRRI dhan49 20.0b 3.6def 1.3ab
BRRI dhan33 22.5a 4.3ab 1.3ab
Mean±Std. Error 17.80±0.24 3.53±0.06 1.33±0.02
Any two means having common letter (s) are not statistically different at a P< 0.05, as measured by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

 

CONCLUSION

Details screening of the physicochemical properties of rice is necessary for grain quality evaluation and possible food industry applications. Among the varieties studied traditionally cultivated rice variety such as Subulkua, Sonasail, Rotisail, Bashi, Jingh sail showed good physical characteristics in term of maximum milling outturn , good appearance, L/B ratio etc. The chemical properties such as AAC, ASV and protein content were excellent in varieties Betu, Rotisail, Bashiraj, Jinghsail and Kaisaful. The best cooking quality such as limited cooking time, imbibition ratio (IR) and elongation ratio (ER) were observed in the rice varieties Sakor, Sonamukhi and Jabsiri.  The study revealed that these selected traditional rice varieties posses superior grain quality characteristics, which could be used as parental materials in aman rice breeding programmes in Bangladesh.

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